IPAM Amazônia | Glossary

IPAM Amazônia | Desenvolvimento sustentável da Amazônia pelo crescimento econômico, justiça social e proteção da integridade de seus ecossistemas.

IPAM Amazônia | Desenvolvimento sustentável da Amazônia pelo crescimento econômico, justiça social e proteção da integridade de seus ecossistemas.

Protocolo de Quioto, Ipam, Efeito Estufa, Mercado de Carbono, Recuperação de áreas degradadas, Mudanças Climáticas, Crédito de Carbono, Mudanças Globais climáticas

Protocolo quioto, o que é protocolo de quioto, porque lugares como florestas tem mais chuvas?, credito de carbono, redd, mudanças climáticas globais, o que é efeito estufa, protocolo de kyoto

Protocolo de Quioto, Ipam, Efeito Estufa, Mercado de Carbono, Recuperação de áreas degradadas, Mudanças Climáticas, Crédito de Carbono, Mudanças Globais climáticas

Protocolo quioto, o que é protocolo de quioto, porque lugares como florestas tem mais chuvas?, credito de carbono, redd, mudanças climáticas globais, o que é efeito estufa, protocolo de kyoto

Protocolo de Quioto, Ipam, Efeito Estufa, Mercado de Carbono, Recuperação de áreas degradadas, Mudanças Climáticas, Crédito de Carbono, Mudanças Globais climáticas
IPAM Amazônia | Desenvolvimento sustentável da Amazônia pelo crescimento econômico, justiça social e proteção da integridade de seus ecossistemas.

Protocolo quioto, o que é protocolo de quioto, porque lugares como florestas tem mais chuvas?, credito de carbono, redd, mudanças climáticas globais, o que é efeito estufa, protocolo de kyoto

Protocolo de Quioto, Ipam, Efeito Estufa, Mercado de Carbono, Recuperação de áreas degradadas, Mudanças Climáticas, Crédito de Carbono, Mudanças Globais climáticas

IPAM Amazônia | Desenvolvimento sustentável da Amazônia pelo crescimento econômico, justiça social e proteção da integridade de seus ecossistemas.


    1. Avoided deforestation

      It is the reduction in deforestation rate of an area, so that the resulting deforestation rate is lower than in a non-intervention scenario to decrease the forest conversion process.

    2. ARPA

      Brazilian Portuguese acronym for Programa Áreas Protegidas da Amazônia (ARPA), which means Amazon Region Protected Areas Program. The program was launched in 2002 by Federal Decree #4,326 and went into operation in 2003. The ARPA program aims to protect significant samples of Amazonian biodiversity on an unprecedented scale, bringing together state of the art in conservation biology and participatory integration of local communities.

      By the end of 2012, a total of 117 protected areas were supported by ARPA.

    3. Arc of deforestation

      The region where the agricultural border advances towards the forest and also where the highest rates of deforestation of the Amazon are found. It corresponds to 500 thousand km² of land, going from the east and south of the Brazilian state of Pará towards the west, passing through the states of Mato Grosso, Rondônia, and Acre.

    4. Anthropogenic emissions

      Emissions produced as a result of human action. For example, large amounts of carbon dioxide are being released into the atmosphere by activities such as the burning of fossil fuels, agriculture, cement making, and so on.

    5. Anthropic or anthropogenic

      Whatever is generated by human activity.

    6. Annex I parties or Annex I countries

      The Annex I to the Climate Change Convention is composed of parties to the convention and the industrialized countries of the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. The division between Annex I parties and non-Annex I parties separates the countries according to their responsibility for increasing the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases.

      Annex I parties, basically developed countries, have emission limitation or reduction targets since the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol.

    7. Annex I

      See Annex I countries.

    8. Albedo

      The proportions of solar radiation reflected by a surface or object, expressed in percentage. Snow-covered surfaces have high albedo level; ground (soil) albedo can be high or low; vegetation-covered surfaces and oceans have low albedo level. The Earth’s albedo varies mainly due to the different levels of clouds, snow, ice, vegetation, and changes in the earth’s surface.

    9. Agroforestry systems

      Forms of land-use and land-management, in which trees or shrubs are used together with crop and/or animals in the same area, simultaneously or in a sequence of time. They must include at least one tree or shrub forest species, which can be combined with one or more crops and/or animal species, because this forest species provides useful products to the producer, as well as playing an essential role in maintaining soil fertility.

      Agroforestry Systems (AFSs) mimic the vegetation cover of the forest, with diversification being its essence and foundation. This perspective favors the productivity recovery of degraded soils through implanted tree species, which naturally fertilize the soil, reducing the use of external inputs and, thus, the production costs, and increasing the economic efficiency of the productive unit. In addition, the greater diversification represents more marketable products, favoring a more harmonic generation of income in time. This context is very suitable for small family farming.

      Agroforestry systems can be categorized into:

      Silvicultural systems – a combination of trees or shrubs with agricultural species.

      Silvopastoral systems – a combination of trees or shrubs with herbaceous forage plants and animals.

      Agrosilvopastoral systems – animal husbandry or management in silvi-agricultural consortia.

      There are several possible techniques for using AFSs. The main ones are windbreaks, protection shelters, hedgerows, Taungya (periodic planting of trees and agricultural crops), alleys (permanent trees in contour lines), agroforestry yards, non-successive agroforestry (trees associated with agricultural crops), and successive agroforestry.

      Source: Apremavi – Association for the Preservation of the Environment and Life

    10. Additionality

      Criteria established by Article 12 of the Kyoto Protocol, to which the projects developed through the Clean Development Mechanism are subject.  Under this criterion, an activity must prove to result in the reduction of greenhouse gases emissions or the increase of CO2 removals in addition to what would occur in the absence of a project activity. This criterion aims to assess whether the activity provides a real, measurable, and long-term reduction for climate change mitigation.

    1. Biome

      The word ‘biome’ – ‘bios’ (from Ancient Greek βίο, meaning ‘life’) and ‘ome’ (a variation of ōma, from Ancient Greek ωμα, meaning ‘mass’ or ‘group’) – was first used in 1943 by the American botanist Frederic Edward Clements, to define a biological unit or geographic space whose specific characteristics are defined by its macroclimate, phytophysiognomy, soil, and altitude. However, over the years, the definition of biome has changed from author to author.

      Currently, biomes are groups of neighboring vegetation types that present similar geographic and climatic conditions. In other words, they are ecosystem sets, grouped according to the characteristics of vegetation, relief, and climate. The classification of these large plant formations into biomes began to emerge after the understanding that several regions of the planet have similar biological diversities (ecosystems), even when located in different continents.

      There are seven main biomes in Brazil. They are: Amazon, caatinga, Cerrado, Atlantic Forest, Campos do Sul (Pampa), Pantanal, and coastal zones.

    2. Baseline

      The baseline of a project is the scenario that represents the level of anthropogenic emissions/removals of CO2 equivalent that would occur in the absence of the proposed project activity. It serves as a basis for both verification of additionality and quantification of certified emissions eeductions (CERs) arising from clean development mechanism (CDM) project activities.

      The certified emissions reductions will be calculated precisely by the difference between baseline emissions and emissions verified as a result of CDM project activities, including leakage. The baseline is qualified and quantified based on a business-as-usual scenario.

    1. COP

      Conference of the Parties, countries who are signatories to the UN Climate Change Convention.

      With the entry into force of the Climate Change Convention in 1994, representatives of the signatory countries started to meet annually at the Conferences of the Parties to discuss the progress of the implementation of the treaty and to continue discussions on how best to deal with climate change and environmental issues – in this case, party is the same as country.

      The COP is the ‘supreme moment’ of the Climate Change Convention, and the procedures adopted by its components and internal bodies are governed by written laws.

    2. CO2 equivalent (CO2e)

      It is a metric measure used to compare emissions of various greenhouse gases based on the global warming potential of each one of them, defined in decision 2/COP 3 or as subsequently revised in accordance with Article 5.

      Carbon dioxide equivalent is the result of the multiplication of tons of greenhouse gases (GHG) emitted by their global warming potential. For example, the global warming potential of methane gas is 21 times greater than the carbon dioxide (CO2)potential. So we say that the CO2 equivalent of methane equals 21.

    3. Climate system

      The totality of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and geosphere and their interactions.

    4. Climate change

      Changes that are directly or indirectly attributed to human activity and alter the composition of the world’s atmosphere and that is added to that caused by the natural climatic variability observed over comparable periods.

    5. Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)

      Established by Article 12 of the Kyoto Protocol, evolved from a Brazilian proposal, and stipulated throughout the COP 3 negotiations, the clean development mechanism (CDM) is the only of the three mechanisms introduced by the Protocol that include developing countries.

      Its two fundamental objectives are to advise the Climate Change Convention Annex I countries to meet their greenhouse gases emission reduction targets at a lower cost and, at the same time, help developing countries achieve sustainability. In summary, the CDM allows the implementation of projects in countries not included in the Convention’s Annex I to remove greenhouse gases from the atmosphere, allowing for the creation of certified emission reductions (CERs), representative of credits.

      The CDM is, therefore, the market instrument of the Protocol applicable to Brazil.

    6. Certified emission reduction (CER)

      Negotiable credit in the international carbon market originated from clean development mechanism (CDM) projects.

    7. CDM Project Activities

      Activities that are part of a candidate CDM project and that provide a reduction in the emission of greenhouse gases or an increase in the removal of CO2. (see question 20 of the ABC of Changes)

    8. Carbon stocks

      They include carbon stored in vegetation (above and below ground), decaying matter in the soil, and wood products.

    9. Carbon sinks

      Any processes, activities or mechanisms, including biomass, and especially forests and oceans, which have the property of removing a greenhouse gas, aerosols or precursors of greenhouse gases from the atmosphere.

    10. Carbon pools

      A component of the climate system in which the so-called greenhouse gases –or a precursor of greenhouse gas – are stored.

    11. Carbon market

      The carbon market has existed since before the entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol, when it was possible to observe, in the international market, a growing demand for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions, so that the ton avoided of equivalent carbon (tCO2e) has become a world-traded type of commodity.

      In general, the carbon market is divided into two segments:

      (i) Kyoto, whose emissions reductions are classified as Kyoto Pre-Compliance, led by the European Union; and
      (ii) Non-Kyoto, whose main actor is the United States.

      Between these extremes, one can also identify markets that have the prospect of becoming integrated into the Kyoto market in the future, and those that do not have it, being motivated by other interests.

    12. Carbon dioxide (CO2)

      Gas naturally present in the atmosphere, accounting for approximately 0.036% of all of the atmospheric gases, and also emitted from the burning of fossil fuels and biomass, land use changes, and other industrial processes. It is one of the main greenhouse gases and is used as a reference to the other ones.

    13. Carbon credits

      Reductions in greenhouse gas emissions tradable in the international carbon market, measured in avoided tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (tCO2e).

      Currently, there are two types of assets being traded on the market: (i) emission allowances allocated to an existing or imminent system that establishes a cap-and-trade scheme; and (ii) project-based emission reductions, derived from project activities.

      In the first one, to avoid penalties, an entity must retain emissions allowances equal to the total emissions of the regulated pollutant, for each commitment period. Allowance permits are created by a regulatory agency and generally distributed to issuers by grant, auction, or a combination of the two. They are withdrawn from the market when there’s the need to reduce emissions of the regulated pollutant. In the second one, the bidders participate in the elaboration and financing of a project that, when compared to business as usual, reduces emissions of greenhouse gases and, on the other hand, acquire emission reductions obtained by the project.

      Units provided by the Kyoto Protocol:

      – Emission Reduction Units (ERUs) – generated by the Joint Implementation mechanism (Article 6 of the Protocol);
      – Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) – derived from CDM projects;
      – Assigned Amount Units (AAUs) – corresponding to Emissions Trading (Article 17 of the Protocol); and
      – Removal Units (RMUs) – arising from the additional human-induced activities undertaken since 1990 and that have caused variations in greenhouse gas emissions or removals (Article 3, Paragraphs 3 and 4 of the Kyoto Protocol).

    1. Diffusion in the oceans

      The process through which the atmosphere and water continuously exchange molecules of carbon dioxide. The diffusion of carbon dioxide into the oceans accounts for almost half of the carbon extracted from the atmosphere. The colder oceans absorb more CO2 than warmer waters, since such gas is more soluble at high pressures and low temperatures.

    2. Designated operational entity (DOE)

      These are national or international entities accredited by the Executive Board – and designated by COP/MOP, which will ratify or not the Board’s accreditation to act within the cycle of CDM projects. The responsibilities of DOEs and the manner in which the Executive Board will accredit and coordinate them can be found in items 20 to 27 of the Marrakesh Agreement.

    3. Designated National Authority

      Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects require domestic monitoring by parties representing the government of the countries involved in the project. Such authority, known as Designated National Authority (DNA), is invested with great responsibility to approve and authorize the CDM projects. The DNA should be well supported by people who understand all of the procedures and rules of the Kyoto Protocol concerning structuring a project, financing, external investor, sustainable development considerations, and environmental laws. The Kyoto Protocol and the Marrakesh Agreement did not regulate all of the attributions of a DNA. This function was incumbent to each country, which in stipulating and designing their DNAs, should do so in a way that would ensure a body invested with transparency and that would facilitate the effectiveness and efficiency of the approval of a CDM project, and provide coordination to the government so that no requisition or approval necessary for the implementation of the CDM, especially in the host country, is obtained late. Among the primary functions of the Designated National Authority there is the writing of a Letter of Approval, designed to empower projects. In Brazil, the Designated National Authority is the Interministerial Commission on Global Climate Change (Comissão Interministerial de Mudança Global do Clima – CIMGC), established by the Presidential Decree of July 7, 1999.

    4. Deforestation

      It is the clearing of forests from the ground. It should be noted that forests are a significant sink for carbon dioxide.

    1. Externality

      The fact of existing outside the perceiving subject. This economic phenomenon can be categorized as positive or negative when, in the price of the good placed on the market, the social gains and losses resulting from its production or consumption, respectively, are not included. Externality means a market failure, in the sense that the product put on the market does not have a price that contains all of the gains or losses resulting from its production.

    2. Executive Board

      Article 12 of the Kyoto Protocol establishes an independent governing body – the Executive Board – to supervise the implementation and administration of the clean development mechanism (CDM).

      The Executive Board is the last point of contact for CDM participants, both in terms of project registration and the issuance of CERs. The CDM Executive Board (CDM EB) supervises the Kyoto Protocol’s clean development mechanism under the authority and guidance of the Conference of the Parties serving as the Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP). The CDM EB is fully accountable to the CMP.

      The CDM Executive Board main functions include – among other things provided in the Marrakesh Agreement:
      (i) accreditation of the Designated Operational Entities (DOE) e provides advice to them;
      (ii) registration and development of CDM project activities;
      (iii) issuance of CREs;
      (iv) establishment and improvement of methodologies for baseline definition, monitoring, and leakage; and
      (v) development and publicity of the collection of approved rules, procedures, methodologies, and standards.

    3. Escape

      See leakage.

    4. Environmental services

      A set of functions performed by nature, essential to human beings, such as water and gas regulation, climatic and of physical disturbances, water supply, erosion control and sediment retention, soil formation, nutrient cycling, pollination, and many others.

    5. Entry into force

      Intergovernmental agreements, including protocols and amendments, are not legally valid until ratified by a certain number of countries. For the UNFCCC creation, it took 50 countries; as for ratifying the Kyoto Protocol, at least 55 countries were required (together representing 55% of Annex 1 emissions in 1990). The Paris Agreement entered into force after at least 55 Parties to the Convention accounting in total for at least an estimated 55% of the total global greenhouse gas emissions have deposited their instruments of ratification.

    6. Empty forest

      A portion of the forest where, although still possible to observe the green of the forest, the presence of animals – especially pollinators – is already rare or null, compromising the region’s environmental services and the long-term survival of the forest.

      The more fragmented a forest is, the more empty it is – that is, the less biodiversity it harbors and, therefore, the more endangered it is.

    7. Emissions

      The release of greenhouse gases and/or their precursors into the atmosphere at a specific area and over a specified period.

    8. El Niño

      An irregularly occurring climatic phenomenon, but that usually occurs every three to five years. It is evident during the Christmas season (El Niño referes to “baby Jesus”) on the oceanic surfaces of the eastern part of the tropical Pacific Ocean. The phenomenon involves seasonal changes in tropical winds direction that circulate over the Pacific region and abnormally warm ocean surface temperatures. The changes in the tropical regions are very intense, breaking their climatic standards throughout and in higher latitudes, mainly in Central and North America.

    1. Fossil fuels

      Fuels such as oil, natural gas, and mineral coal – fossilized plant residues – that are buried in the Earth’s crust and reached their present state through chemical reactions over long periods of time. They are produced by the continuous decomposition of organic animal and plant matter through geological eras. Their production is extremely slow – much slower than the current consumption rate – and therefore, not renewable on the human timescale.

    2. Forestation

      It is the conversion, directly induced by the humans, of land that has not been forested – for a period of at least 50 years – into forested land through planting, sowing, and/or human-induced promotion of natural sources of seeds.

      This definition is used for land-use activities, land-use change, and forestry, under Article 3, Paragraphs 3 and 4, of the Kyoto Protocol.

    3. Forest conversion

      Change to the forest environment to establish another land use, such as pasture and agriculture; deforestation.

    4. Forest

      It is a land area of at least ​​0.05-1.0 hectare with tree crown cover (or equivalent level of stock) with more than 10-30% of trees having the potential to reach the minimum height of 2-5 meters in in situ maturity. A forest may consist of closed forest formations, where trees of various strata and sub-forests cover a large proportion of the ground or open forest.

      Young natural stands and all planting which have yet to reach a crown density of 10-30 percent or height of 2-5 meters are considered forests, as are the areas that are temporarily out of stock as a result of human intervention, and which are typically part of the forest area, such as harvesting or natural causes, but are expected to revert to forest.

      This definition is used for land-use activities, land-use change, and forestry, under Article 3, Paragraphs 3 and 4, of the Kyoto Protocol.

    5. Fiscal module

      A fiscal module is a unit of measure set differently for each town according to the Brazilian Act No. 6.746/79, which takes into account the type of exploitation predominant in the town; proceeds from the predominant exploitation; and other existing in-town exploitation that, although not predominant, is expressive according to the income or the area used; concept of family property.

      Currently, the fiscal module serves as a parameter for land classification of rural property in terms of its size, in accordance with Article 4 of Act 8.629/93, as follows:
      – small-scale rural property – less than one (1) fiscal module;
      – small property – rural property area between 1 (one) and 4 (four) fiscal modules;
      – medium-size property – rural property area between 4 (four) and 15 (fifteen) fiscal modules;
      – large property – rural property area greater than 15 (fifteen) tax modules.

      Source: Instituto Nacional de Colonização e Reforma Agrária – INCRA (Brazil’s National Institute for Colonization and Agrarian Reform)

    6. First commitment period

      Refers to the 2008-2012 period under the Kyoto Protocol.

    1. Greenhouse gases (GHG)

      Gaseous constituents of the atmosphere, from natural or anthropic sources, that absorb and re-emit infrared radiation. The UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol count for carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), accompanied by two families of gases – hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) .

    2. Greenhouse effect

      It is the way that the Earth has to maintain a constant temperature conducive to life. It is a natural process that provides the necessary temperature for the establishment and sustenance of life on Earth and which is only possible through greenhouse gases. These gases, whose molecules capture heat in the Earth’s atmosphere, when correctly distributed, act similarly to the cover of a greenhouse on the planet, allowing the passage of solar radiation (in the form of light), but avoiding the release of infrared radiation (in the form of heat) by the Earth.

      This phenomenon keeps the Earth’s temperature about 30 degrees Celsius warmer than in its absence, preventing our planet from being compared to an icy desert.

      As the human activities, such as fossil fuels use, have released more greenhouse gases and they have kept more infrared radiation, leading to a global warming and climate changes.

    3. Governance

      Within the working context of the Amazon Environmental Research Institute (IPAM), governance can be defined as the exercise of economic, political, and administrative authority to manage a country or region at all levels to ensure the effectiveness of processes and institutions, by means of which, citizens articulate their interests, exercise their legal rights, fulfill their obligations, and measure their differences (Bandeira, 1999).

    1. HCFCs, PCFs, and SF6

      See greenhouse gases (GHG).

    1. IPCC

      IPCC means Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Established in 1988 by the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) issue, every five years, the results of intensive research on the dynamics of the atmosphere, the implications for the biosphere, agricultural production, the stability of ecosystems on human lives, and their socio-economic consequences. Connected to the UN, it brings together scientists from all of the countries of the Climate Change Convention and is recognized as the world’s leading authority on climate issues.

    2. Indigenous peoples and local communities

      Communities formed by indigenous peoples and local communities of the Amazon forest – indigenous peoples, rubber tappers, Brazil nut collectors, etc. – which base their way of life on the extraction of products such as rubber, chestnut, balatá tree, vegetable oils, etc. In addition, they are hunters and practice non-predatory fishing, as well as subsistence farming. Traditional communities are social groups that need the forest and rivers to survive, and know how to use natural resources without destroying them.

    3. Igarapé

      An igarapé is an Amazon watercourse of first or third order, constituted by a long arm of river or channel. It exists in a small number in the Amazon basin, characterized by little depth and running almost inside the forest.

      Most igarapés have dark waters similar to the Negro River (Rio Negro), which is one of the main tributaries of the Amazon River, carrying few sediments. They are navigable by small vessels and canoes and play an essential role as transport and communication routes.

    1. Nothing was registred at glossary.

    1. Kyoto Protocol

      On December 11, 1997, the Kyoto Protocol was created during the Third Conference of the Parties (COP 3) to the Climate Change Convention, held in Kyoto, Japan. It is a treaty linked to the convention, which defines the responsibilities and obligations of the various parties involved, as a result of the increase of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and their consequences.

      According to the treaty, so that industrialized countries that had ratified it could meet the targets to which they were subject, they had to reduce a percentage of gases, for the 2008-2012 period, that, by the end of such commitment period, would have corresponded, in all, to an average reduction of approximately 2,800 million tones.

      To this end, the Protocol, which entered into force on February 16, 2005, established three innovative international market mechanisms. It is within this context that the clean development mechanism (CDM) is inserted, as a result of a Brazilian proposal, which, in addition to the certainty of industrial containment of the industrialized countries, provides opportunities for sustainable social and economic development for the growing countries.

      The Kyoto Protocol was extended to 2020 during COP 18 in Doha, Qatar. The Paris Agreement, signed during the COP 21, in 2015, will replace the protocol.

    1. LULUCF

      It means “land use, land-use change and forestry”. The LULUCF activities eligible under the clean development mechanism are those that promote the removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, i.e., afforestation and reforestation.

    2. Leakage or escape

      It corresponds to the increase of greenhouse gas emissions that occur outside the limit of the clean development mechanism (CDM) project activity and which, at the same time, is measurable and attributable to the project activity. The leakage is deducted from the total amount of carbon credits earned by the CDM project activity. Thus, all possible negative impacts, in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, are considered.

    1. MOP

      Following the entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol in 2005, the Conference of the Parties of the UN Climate Change Convention started operating as the meeting of parties (MOP) of the protocol. This body meets in a similar manner to the Conferences of the Parties and its functions are similar.

    2. Mitigation

      Actions to reduce greenhouse gases emissions and, consequently, to mitigate climate change.

    3. Marrakesh Agreement

      With 39 decisions, the Marrakesh Agreement compiles the principles, nature, scope, types, and procedures of the flexible mechanisms (CDM, Joint Implementation and Emissions Trading). It was in Africa, in the city of Marrakesh, during the seventh Conference of the Parties (COP 7) that the Bonn Agreement was translated into formal decisions, triggering a package of operational rules for the Kyoto Protocol, giving rise, after some concessions made by all of the parties, to the Marrakesh Agreement. The main purpose of the agreement was to facilitate the immediate start of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), regulating the project certification procedure and its phases.

    1. Non-Annex I parties

      These are all of the Climate Convention parties not listed in Annex I, basically developing contries, including Brazil.

    1. Nothing was registred at glossary.

    1. Protocol

      A protocol is always linked to an existing convention but is a separate and additional agreement that must be signed and ratified by the “signatory” parties to the convention. Protocols strengthen a convention, usually by adding new and more detailed commitments.

    2. Proarco

      The Amazon Emergency Fire Prevention and Control Project (Programa de Prevenção e Controle de Queimadas e Incêndios Florestais na Amazônica Legal, PROARCO), of the Brazilian government.

    3. PPCDAM

      The Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Deforestation in the Legal Amazon (PPCDAm). Its fourth phase lasts until 2020.

    4. PNMC

      National Plan on Climate Change (Plano Nacional sobre Mudança do Clima, PNMC, in Portuguese) is the Brazilian official voluntary commitment with the UNFCCC to achieve greenhouse gases cut between 36.1% and 38.9% of the 2020 projected emissions.

      It has established by the Brazilian Act 12,187. The Decree 7390/2010 describes the baseline in 3.236 GtCO2e, or a dropt to 1.168 GtCO2e and 1.259 GtCO2e emissions.

    5. Permanence

      Time at which carbon stored by sequestration remains in a carbon pool without being rereleased. Only permanent carbon pools are acceptable for climate policy purposes.

    6. Parties

      Refer to the countries that are part of a convention. These can be individual countries or economic blocs, such as the European Union.

    7. Paris Agreement

      The COP 21’s Paris Agreement brings all nations into a common cause to undertake ambitious efforts to combat climate change and adapt to its effects, with enhanced support to assist developing countries to do so.

      Its central aim is to strengthen the global response to the threat of climate change by keeping a global temperature rise this century well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels and to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase even further to 1.5 degrees Celsius.

      The Paris Agreement entered into force on 4 November 2016, thirty days after the date on which at least 55 parties to the Climate Convention accounting in total for at least an estimated 55% of the total global greenhouse gas emissions have deposited their instruments of ratification.

    1. Nothing was registred at glossary.

    1. Rio-92 or ECO-92

      The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, also known as Earth Summit, held in June of 1992, in Rio de Janeiro, bringing together more than 180 countries. It was at Rio-92 that the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was opened for signature.

    2. Renewable energy

      It is the energy derived from sources that do not use exhaustible fuels (for example, water – hydroelectric power, wind – wind energy, Sun – solar energy, tides, and geothermal sources). Some combustible materials, such as biomass, can also be considered renewable. Usually, renewable energy generation (with the exception of geothermal and hydroelectric) does not emit greenhouse gases.

    3. Reforestation

      It is the conversion, directly induced by humans, of unforested land into forested land through planting, sowing and/or human-induced promotion of natural seed sources, in an area that has been forested but converted into non-forested land.

      For the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol, reforestation activities were limited to reforestation occurring on lands that did not contain forests on December 31, 1989 (the definition used for land-use, land-use change, and forestry activities under Article 3, paragraphs 3 and 4 of the Kyoto Protocol).

    4. REDD+ Global Partnership

      According to a document signed in Oslo (Norway) in May 2010, the REDD+ Global Partnership brings a set of voluntary actions to develop issues related to the REDD mechanism. These actions are parallel to those under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), which must, in fact, establish the future REDD mechanism.

      The document says: “The core objective of the Partnership is to contribute to the global battle against climate change by serving as an interim platform for the partners to scale up REDD+ actions and finance, and to that end to take immediate action, including improving the effectiveness, efficiency, transparency, and coordination of REDD+ initiatives and financial instruments, to facilitate, among other things, knowledge transfer, capacity enhancement, mitigation actions, and technology development and transfer.”

      In this regard, the partnership must act as a channel to coordinate existing REDD+ mechanisms and projects and to identify and resolve gaps and overlaps of possible funding.

    5. REDD+

      It means REDD, with the inclusion of the role of conservation, sustainable forest management, and increasing forest carbon stocks in developing countries. It is the concept currently applied under the Climate Convention.

    6. REDD

      Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation – the concept has evolved to REDD+.

    7. Ratification

      After signing an international treaty, such as the Climate Change Convention or the Kyoto Protocol, a country has to ratify the commitment, often with the approval of its parliament or other legislature. The ratification instrument must be deposited with the UN Secretary-General to, then, begin the 90-day count for the ratifying country to become an integral party. There are minimum ratifications thresholds for the entry into force of international treaties.

    1. Source

      Any process or activity that releases greenhouse gases, aerosols or a precursor of greenhouse gas into the atmosphere.

    2. Small-scale CDM Project Activities

      These are smaller scale project activities that are subject to a more agile project cycle and with lower transaction costs.

    3. SIPAM

      Protection System of the Amazon (Sistema de Proteção da Amazônia, SIPAM. Former Sistema de Vigilância da Amazônia – Sivan, Amazon Surveillance System). It is an Amazon surveillance system of the federal government.

    4. Second commitment period

      Refers to the 2012-2020 period, under the Kyoto Protocol.

    5. SBSTA

      Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice – a technical body of the Climate Change Convention.

    1. The Stern Review

      Paper commissioned by the government of the United Kingdom on the effects on the global economy of climate change in the next 50 years. It was coordinated by World Bank economist, Sir Nicholas Stern, and published on October 30, 2006. One of the main conclusions of the report is that the spending to stabilize the emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere would be equivalent to 1% of the world’s GDP by 2050.

    2. The Brazilian Climate Observatory

      The Brazilian Climate Observatory (Observatório do Clima, OC) is a Brazilian network of articulation on global climate change established on March 23, 2002. In addition to discussions with experts on climate change, the Observatory promotes the articulation of civil society entities to pressure the government for strong actions to mitigate and adapt Brazil in relation to climate change. The Amazon Environmental Research Institute (IPAM) is one of the founding organizations of the OC.

    1. Nothing was registred at glossary.

    1. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change or the Climate Change Convention

      See UNFCCC.

    1. Nothing was registred at glossary.

    1. Nothing was registred at glossary.

    1. Nothing was registred at glossary.

    1. Nothing was registred at glossary.